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清代是我国石雕龙柱的繁荣时期和龙柱的主要特征

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清代是我国石雕龙柱的繁荣时期和龙柱的主要特征

发布日期:2019-06-24 作者: 点击:

清代是我国石雕龙柱的繁荣时期,目前我国各地存在的龙柱大部分都是清代的。尤其是同治光绪时期的特别多。这一时期,各地一些规模较大的庙宇,往往多有信徒为之添置一对甚至几组的石雕龙柱,以显声名。清代石雕厂家的龙柱在走向以量取胜的同时,造型也在迅速的程式化,表现在柱型的乏变与龙体的定格,给人的印象是相差无几,似乎只是工艺上的精粗和装饰内容上的多寡而已。伴随着程式化而来的是艺术创作张力的逐渐萎缩,龙的神态从清初的神气威猛、形神兼备至清中期的蓄势无威、热闹媚俗直至清末的有形无神、有量无质。清代以来,我国等地寺观的山门、正殿的檐柱必用龙柱,且多用透雕的形式。龙柱柱心为圆形、八角或六角,龙缠柱身,龙首有向上与向下之分。若一柱雕二龙,谓之“雌雄蟠龙”;一首向上一首向下者,谓之“翻天覆地龙”。“翻天覆地龙”是我国乃至世界石雕龙柱中瑰宝,迄今为止存世的仅有三、四对。此外,一些龙柱上常配以云纹、水纹或水族动物虾蟹等。晚近的雕龙柱,有的柱心隐退消失,纯粹以龙身作为柱子。

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